Training and Development are widely discussed in our present day world in any organization where the people concerned are engaged as to utilize their brain and energy with utmost devotion and great interest for their careers. I would prefer to say something as connotation of these terms before precisely elaborating my views in relation to the topic headline. Here, I concentrate on training, its difference with development and relative importance in the modern world.
In essence, training is the act of increasing knowledge and skill of the employee for doing a particular job. It covers planned programme designed to improve performance at the individual, group or organizational level. So, improved performance means measurable change in knowledge, skill, attitude and social behaviour.
Trainee come to participate in the training programme with their concerns, expectation, gather knowledge and in the end express their reactions. Let me say with a simile that before the beginning of the training they are just like empty glasses but finally they are like glasses full of knowledge, experience and skill they require to apply in their respective organizations for better performance. As for example, a trained person in a farm, factory or industry can work better than a non-trained person. So, the more trainings a participants receives, the more updated he becomes. Some people are afraid of long-term training and they feel boring. Despite this, it is worth learning and applicable in professional life. Officers of BCS Admin and Education Cadre compulsorily attend Foundation Training. In the army and police department the training period is full of discipline and very important for career development. There the trainees show utmost restraint and patience to complete the programs.
In other departments adequate training is equally desirable for all participants. A learned skill is an asset and is valuable for the employee in terms of better security and greater opportunity within or without the present organization. The un-trained job applicant should be as much interested in a firm’s training programme as he is in the starting salary. Training is one of the areas of management in which employer and employee have mutual benefit. As far as, the development of a firm or any other organization is concerned the importance of training may be summarised as:
(a) with the increase of skill, the quantity and quality of output tend to increase in the technical nature of modern jobs.
(b) The possession of useful skills heightens strong morals among the trainees and reduces the cost of supervision.
(c) Proper training in job skills and safety attitudes can avoid the number of accidents and increase organisational stability, flexibility and goodwill.
(d) It is a powerful means of creating skilled-man power that can generate more income.
(e) It is only through training we can fulfil our want of better technical know-how.
(f) We all know that every training has some goals to be attained either in the short run or in the long run. But the major aim is professional development.
However, there are certain differences between training and development though they sometimes overlap each other. Basically, development is professional and is attained by training and effort. There is a program schedule in every training which is time-bound but development is a life-long process. Training is always given on specific topic or area but development is overall, comprehensive and holistic. Development is the output while training is the input where different aids, equipment and tools are used. Training may be of various types such as pre-service, in-service, formal and non-formal but in development the quality is always ensured. As for instance, when a teacher receives training, he is expected to give appropriate classroom delivery. Training has its end but development is a life-long process. Again, the term ‘‘training’’ contrasts with the term ‘‘education’’ which is concerned with increasing our general knowledge, understanding and background. Both are desirable for any employee.
Notwithstanding this, it is true that training is method and technique-based. In this respect it is worthwhile discussing briefly the difference between them. A techniques is the narrowest term, meaning a one single procedure. A method consists of a number of techniques.
In our modern world new technologies are being used for upgrading the training system. In Bangladesh with the spectacular development of the ICT sector, training has assumed a new dimension. Different organizations, and multinational companies organise special training programmes for their staff and employees. On the other hand, teachers’ training programmes are also conducted by the TTCs (Teachers’ Training Colleges) HSTTI (Higher Secondary Teachers’ Training Institute), PTI (Primary Teachers’ Training Institute), NAEM (National Academy for Educational Management) and other projects and professional organizations. The Secondary School teachers take B Ed and M Ed courses for their professional development. Now-a-days private universities arrange training programmes to increase efficiency of their junior teachers.
In education according to the EROTI (Experience Rationale Observation Try and Integration) model, the trainees observe what is happening in the training session and try out to integrate their experience and think about the rationale behind this training procedure and link with their previous knowledge. Rod Bolitho, the former Director of INTEC (International Education Centre) at Plymouth, England explains the personal concerns of the trainees for the first few days when they are inducted to the programme, their expectation to get useful ideas, demonstration and new techniques from the trainers for gaining experience by the use of the available resources.
Care must be taken, however, to assure that neither excessive information nor information that can be misinterpreted is given. The more highly motivated the trainees, the more quickly and thoroughly a new skill or knowledge is learned. To effectively impart a skill, knowledge or attitude active participation by the trainees is essential. Questions should be encouraged in order to be sure that the learner really understands. An attitude of patience and goodwill gesture on the part of the instructor is a pre-condition for a proper trainee attitude. A trainee should be free to share problem or feedback with his colleagues so that he can develop himself even though he feels uncomfortable in presence of the observer. In operative training, the prime measure of worth is that of productivity. Production rate, covering both quantity and quality are good indicators of the value of training. In teacher training, higher level of performance or development after the training period is considered a chief indicator. It is better to say that the person responsible for training would do well to collect what evidence he can in the areas to determine whether his training program is producing desired result.
In the modern age of science and technology, especially the fast developing countries attach more importance on training programmes to increase efficiency and boost the flow of development in trade and commerce, industry, education, agriculture and administration as well as other governmental and non-governmental sectors. In Bangladesh with the coming to power of the present government and with the strengthening of our economy, training and development have received special emphasis and great significance as its policy to bring revolutionary changes in the country in terms of creating skilled manpower. The economic, commercial and educative imperative of training for development can hardly be overestimated.
And finally, I would like to opine that it is through training, we can greatly increase the knowledge, skill and attitude of our people for the purpose of acquiring professional development which is the sine qua non of our country’s progress and prosperity in the present day world.